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Midterm 1 Preparation Questions





A.  Multiple Choice



1.    When the brain is stimulated electrically


a.    visual experiences may occur.

b.    previous memories may be blocked.

c.     new memories are blocked.

d.    none of the above.



2.    Psychology consists of the study of


a.    action

b.    cognition

c.     social processes

d.    all of the above



3.    The visual cliff results suggest that:


a.    perceptual skills are learned

b.    perceptual skills are innate

c.     perceptual skills could be innate

d.    none of the above



4.    Which of the following is NOT part of an individual neuron?


a.    axon

b.    synapse

c.     dendrite

d.    cell body



5.    The action potential:


a.    consists of a transition from a negative charge (inside the neuron) to a persisting positive charge (inside).

b.    consists of a transition from a positive charge (inside) to a negative charge (inside) and a quick return to a positive charge (inside). 

c.     consists of a transition from a negative charge (inside) to a positive charge (inside) and a quick return to a negative charge (inside).

d.    none of the above



6.    The lock-and-key model accounts for:


a.    the existence of neurotransmitters

b.    the fact that specific neurotransmitters stimulate specific post-synaptic neurons

c.     the release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles

d.    the all-or-none law



7.    A new drug is found to increase arousal. All but one of the following are possible         ways in which the drug is acting.  Which is not a possible way?


a.    increases availability of norepinephrine

b.    blocks the enzyme that breaks down dopamine at the synapse

c.     mimics the effects of norepinephrine

d.    blocks the post-synaptic receptor for norepinephrine



8.        You think a person has brain damage, and want to find out where. All of the        following approaches except one would be very helpful.  Which one would not        be very helpful?


a.    Determination of particular behavioral and mental symptoms

b.    CAT scan

c.     Analysis of body chemistry

d.    PET scan



9.     A person exhibiting and inability to coordinate the separate details of the visual        world into a whole suffers from:


a.    visual agnosia

b.    receptive aphasia

c.     a lesion in Broca’s area

d.    a lesion on Wernicke’s area



10.        In both thermoregulation and thirst:


a.    receptors in the hypothalamus sense important aspects of bodily needs

b.    homeostasis occurs

c.     there is both reflexive and voluntary control

d.    all of the above



11.        Which of the following has not been suggested as a cause of obesity in               humans?


a.    damage to the lateral region of the hypothalamus

b.    high digestive efficiency

c.     over-responsiveness to the good taste of food

d.    high metabolic efficiency



12.        Which of the following is not associated with activity of the sympathetic              system?


a.    the emergency reaction

b.    epinephrine

c.     increased heart rate

d.    secretion of digestive enzymes



13.        Which of the following can be considered a homeostatic motive?


a.    hunger

b.    thirst

c.     curiosity

d.    a and b



14.        Behavioral theorists share with Decartes the conviction that:


a.    one must study the nervous system to understand behavior

b.    learning is the most important aspect of animal behavior

c.     complex behavior can be analyzed into simpler, more elementary processes

d.    almost all behavior can be described as hardwired



15.        An animal startles when it is exposed to the sound of EITHER a door slamming                OR a gong ringing.  It is then exposed, about ten times, to the gong ringing           followed by the door slamming.  Now, when the gong rings, the animal does            NOT show startle.  This is an example of:


a.    habituation

b.    classical conditioning

c.     extinction

d.    associations



16.        As described by Thorndike, instrumental learning:


a.  is gradual

b.    is accomplished on trial-and-error basis

c.     is a means of strengthening particular responses

d.    all of the above



17.        The desire for good grades illustrates the phenomenon of:


a.    stimulus generalization

b.    stimulus discrimination

c.     conditioned reinforcement

d.    successive approximation



18.           Which of the following instances of human learning most clearly represents           arbitrary, as opposed to biologically prepared learning?


a.    acquisition of grammar

b.    learning to catch a ball

c.     learning the rules of chess

d.    learning to judge distance




B.   Short Answer Essay Questions



1.    Suppose you want to teach a child to be unafraid of snakes.  Explain how you would do this using ONE of the following methods: (1) Classical Conditioning; (2) Instrumental Conditioning. Define the terms used in your answer.


2.    What is the main idea of Gall’s theory of Phrenology?  What experimental evidence suggests that he was correct to some extent?  What experimental evidence provides support against the strong version of Phrenology?


3.    What is meant by the statement: “motives have an activating and a directing function”?  Discuss each function briefly.  Give an example of psychological phenomena associated with each function.


4.    Authority, Rationalism, and Empiricism are three ways of obtaining knowledge.  Briefly describe each.  What way of obtaining knowledge is used by scientific psychology?


5.    Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.  How are they involved in emotions?


6.    What is an emotion? Describe James’ theory of emotion.  Contrast it with Schachter’s two-factors theory of emotion.