Neurons and Neurotransmitters
1. Why do we need to have some more or less detailed knowledge about how the brain and the organism in general works?
2. The biological foundations of human thinking and action – the structure of the nervous system.
a. Structure of the neuron: dendrites; cell body; axon; myelin sheath; nodes of Raviner.
b. Common types of neurons: receptor cell; sensory neuron; motor neuron; interneuron.
c. The nerve impulse: resting potential; depolarization of the nerve cell; action potential; all-or-none law of firing; frequency of firing.
3. How do neurons communicate?
a. Rene Decartes, and the simple reflex action.
b. Sir Charles Sherrington
c. The gaps between neurons (synapses).
d. Increasing excitation and decreasing inhibition.
- Receptor molecules
- Graded potentials
- Agonists and antagonists
- Examples -- acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine.