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1. The basic phenomenon of motivation:

a.  We study motivation when we want to find out WHY organisms do what they do

b.  Motivation is apparent in a pattern of actions, not just a single action

c.  Motivation is apparent in goal-directed or purposeful behavior

2. A word on physical things versus theoretical constructs (or ideas)

3. Measurement of concepts operational definitions

4. More biological motives: hunger, thirst, and sex.  Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution.

5. Mechanisms of hunger and eating behavior:

a.  Stomach contractions

b.  Blood sugar levels

c.  Taste of food

6. Less biological motives: Need Achievement.

7. Measuring motives: Projective tests

a.  the Rorschach

b.  the TAT.

8. Cultivating need for achievement in kids warmth and affection!