1. Describe the method you would use to decide whether an interaction was present in a table showing the results of a 2 X 2 complex design. Describe the pattern in a line graph that indicates the presence of an interaction in a complex design.
2. Use an example to illustrate how a complex (factorial) design can be used to test predictions derived from a psychological theory.
3. Distinguish between a main effect and an interaction in a complex (factorial) design. How is the external validity of the findings in a complex (factorial) design influenced by the presence or absence of an interaction?
4. What potential solution is there for the problem of drawing causal inferences on the basis of the natural groups (subject variable) design?
5. Explain the role of a complex design in trying to resolve a discrepancy in the findings of two well-done experiments, both of which manipulated the same independent variable.
6. Cite and briefly describe a study using the case study method. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this kind of study?
7. Explain how laboratory experiments and experiments done in natural settings differ in control, external validity, goals, and real-life applicability.
8. Different types of observation studies serve different purposes. What is the primary purpose served by (a) naturalistic observation; (b) structured observation; and (c) field experiment.
9. Identify the four types of measurement scales and provide an example of each type of scale.
10. Describe the major purpose of correlational research and briefly explain how correlational research is different from experimental research.